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History of Journalism

May 3 has been designated as World Press Freedom Day in recognition of a "free, pluralistic and independent press" and its essential part of a democratic society. Indeed, the purpose of journalism, said Chicago newspaper columnist Peter Finley Dunne in the early 1900s, is to "comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfortable." Although modern journalists have often been the targets of severe criticism, it is also true that throughout the centuries, and even today, journalism has been a force for making America a better place to live.

History of Journalism

Books

Mightier than the sword: how the news media have shaped American history by Rodger Streitmatter — This sightseeing tour of American history as influenced by the press, visits 14 landmark events in U.S. history, from the abolitionist movement and the struggle for women's rights to the civil rights movement and Watergate, and demonstrates how American journalism, since the 1760s, has not merely recorded this nation's history, but has played a role in shaping it.

Muckraking!: the journalism that changed America by [compiled by] Judith and William Serrin — This collection of articles from the 19th and 20th centuries campaign for the poor, the working class, public health and safety, women's suffrage, political and economic reform, black freedom, and equality in sports, reminds readers that there was a time when journalism was used to make life better rather than merely to sell products or policies. In collecting the kind of reportage that all too rarely appears in this age of corporate conglomeration, this volume makes clear that American journalists have changed the country for the better. Contributors include Tom Paine, Frederick Douglass, Jacob Riis and Rachel Carson.

On guard, a history of the Detroit free press by Frank Angelo — History of the first daily newspaper in Michigan.

Reporting from Washington: the history of the Washington press corps by Donald A. Ritchie — A portrait of the people who cover Washington politics. Drawing on oral histories, broadcast archives, presidential papers, memoirs and interviews, Ritchie describes the rise of the wire services, racial integration of the press corps, the role of foreign correspondents, the rise of opinion columnists, the use of "leaks," the growth of television, the challenges of cable news networks and, finally, the impact of the Internet on news reporting.

Websites

Freedom of the Press

Books

The day the presses stopped: a history of the Pentagon papers case by David Rudenstine — This bold account provides an original perspective on one of the most significant legal struggles in American history: the Nixon administration's efforts to prohibit the New York Times and the Washington Post from publishing the 7,000-page, top-secret Pentagon Papers, which traced U.S. involvement in Vietnam. The Day the Presses Stopped explains the powerful political forces at work behind the case, weighing the arguments of freedom of information versus national and diplomatic security.

Freedom of speech, press, and assembly by Darien A. McWhirter — Presents actual Supreme Court decisions dealing with the freedoms of speech, press and assembly, placing them in historical context.

Inside the Pentagon papers by edited by John Prados and Margaret Pratt Porter — When Daniel Ellsberg leaked a secret government study about the Vietnam War to the press in 1971, he set off a chain of events that culminated in one of the most important First Amendment decisions in American legal history. That affair is now part of history, but the story behind the case has much to tell us about government secrecy and the public's right to know. Prados and Porter reexamine the secret government papers that blew the whistle on the Vietnam War, led to the federal attempts to restrain the press and ultimately resulted in President Richard Nixon's resignation.

Websites

Broadcast Journalism

Books

Edward R. Murrow and the birth of broadcast journalism by Bob Edwards — Examines the charismatic career and pioneering efforts of renowned newsman Murrow. Joining CBS in 1935, when radio news usually focused on preplanned events, Murrow ran the network's European Bureau by 1937, and became a celebrity in 1940 with his stunning rooftop broadcasts of the London Blitz. Murrow flew on 25 combat missions, delivering dramatic reports on everything from the "orchestrated hell" of Berlin to the liberation of Buchenwald's "living dead." Later, Morrow's groundbreaking TV show, See It Now (1951-1958) put field producers on location, offering live remotes, split screens, original film footage and unrehearsed interviews at a time when other TV news featured only a reading of headlines.

Friendlyvision: Fred Friendly and the rise and fall of television journalism by Ralph Engelman — Fred Friendly (1915-1998) was the single most important personality in news and public affairs programming during the first four decades of American television. Together with Edward R. Murrow, he invented the television documentary format and subsequently oversaw the birth of public television. Juggling the roles of producer, policy maker, and teacher, Friendly had an unprecedented impact on the development of CBS.

The Murrow boys: pioneers on the front lines of broadcast journalism by Stanley Cloud and Lynne Olson — The fascinating story of Edward R. Murrow and his legendary band of CBS radio journalists — Charles Collingwood, Howard K. Smith, William Shirer, Eric Sevareid and others — as they "paint pictures in the air" from the World War II front. It also serves up a sharp-eyed account of where the craft went wrong after the war, when vanity and commercialism increasingly intruded.

DVDS

Cronkite remembers a remarkable century [videodisc] by a production of Cronkite Ward in association with CBS News

The Edward R. Murrow collection [videodisc]

Websites

Journalists

Biographies

"All governments lie": the life and times of rebel journalist I.F. Stone by Myra MacPherson — A penetrating look at one of the nation's most respected journalists and a fascinating history of five decades of challenge to the principles of press freedom in a democracy.

Ida Tarbell: portrait of a muckraker by Kathleen Brady — American "muckraking" journalist, Tarbell wrote on the great reform movements of the 1880s and 1890s: temperance, antimonopoly crusades, housing reform, the eight-hour workday, and other labor issues.

More than a muckraker: Ida Tarbellʼs lifetime in journalism by edited, with an introduction, by Robert C. Kochersberger — Another view of Tarbell's extraordinary life.

Murrow, his life and times by A.M. Sperber — An American television journalist, Murrow virtually invented modern radio and television news and was renowned for his thoroughness and fairness. He gained notoriety for his dramatic radio coverage of the Battle of Britain during WWII, but it was his television documentary news programs, See It Now and CBS Reports, that made him a fixture of television in the 1950s. In the public eye, Murrow became the very ideal of a television newsman and a prime source of the great reputation that CBS News enjoyed for many years.

Nellie Bly: daredevil, reporter, feminist by Brooke Kroeger — American journalist and reformer. Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman — better known as Nellie Bly — gained fame at the end of the 19th century for her investigative reports of abusive conditions in the cities of Pittsburgh and New York. Her writing style was marked by first-hand tales of the lives of the underclass, which she obtained by venturing into their world in a series of undercover adventures. In her greatest escapade, Bly set out to imitate Jules Verne's imaginary trip around the world in less than 75 days while Americans anxiously awaited tales of her travel. Bly distinguished herself as a reporter at a time when the field was dominated by men, and her accomplishments won a greater measure of acceptance for other women journalists.

The pen is mightier: the muckraking life of Charles Edward Russell by Robert Miraldi — American writer, reformer and muckraker, Russell first learned his newspaper skills as the son of the abolitionist editor of the Davenport Gazette. He later became an editor in Detroit, Chicago and New York before becoming involved in the muckraking journalism of the early 20th century. His writings exposed a wide range of social evils, from New York church-owned slums to southern prison camps, to the beef trust in Chicago.

Scotty: James B. Reston and the rise and fall of American journalism by John F. Stacks — This in-depth portrait of one of the 20th century's finest and most influential journalists describes Reston's role in shaping and transforming American journalism and sheds new light on his impact on U.S. politics and how he helped make the New York Times the most important newspaper in the world.

To keep the waters troubled: the life of Ida B. Wells by Linda O. McMurry — African-American journalist, editor, activist and the eldest of eight children, Ida Wells was born a slave in Mississippi in 1862. She later attended Rust College, a freedmen's school, and eventually Fisk University where her life as an activist began. Under the pen name "Iola,"she wrote for several Baptist newspapers throughout the South. Many of her early stories highlighted her own experience fighting segregationist Jim Crow laws. Her reputation as a fearless activist, however, was secured by her tenure at a small Baptist weekly in Memphis, the Free Speech and Headlight. Wells purchased a one-third ownership of the weekly and became its editor in 1889. Never one to shun controversy, she published militant editorials protesting injustices against blacks.

Walter Lippmann and the American century by Ronald Steel — Explores the private life and public career of the American political writer who, from Bull Moose Progressivism to the trauma of Watergate, wielded significant power over public opinion, both at home and abroad.

Publisher Biographies

The chief: the life of William Randolph Hearst by David Nasaw — The first definitive biography of William Randolph Hearst in 40 years incorporates new information, based on recently released private and business papers and interviews, on the powerful publisher's relations with Hitler, Mussolini, Churchill, Roosevelt, plus the movie industry, as well as on his turbulent private life. Winner of the Bancroft Prize.

Citizen Hearst: a biography of Willam Randolph Hearst by W. A. Swanberg — An exhaustive profile of the nation's most powerful newspaper mogul explores the life and times of William Randolph Hearst, his turbulent and flamboyant personal life, his controversial style of journalism, and the growth of his publishing empire.

Luce and his empire by W. A. Swanberg — A fascinating account of Henry Luce who co-founded Time magazine in 1923, and went on to create a publishing empire.

Personal history by Katharine Graham — The longtime owner of the Washington Post recounts her experiences, including how she rebounded from her influential husband's suicide to command the Post during the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal.

Pulitzer by W. A. Swanberg — Biography of the newspaper publisher who arrived in America as an Hungarian immigrant with little knowledge of English and few resources, but went on to become one of the most influential and wealthy men of his time. His New York World pioneered crusading reform journalism and helped to make newspaper reading popular to a mass audience.

Memoirs

Asking for trouble: the autobiography of a banned journalist by Donald Woods — The South African journalist whose arguments and articles against apartheid resulted in his being forbidden to write or even to meet with people, recounts his life, growing up in the Transkei, and his struggle against apartheid.

The autobiography of Lincoln Steffens by Lincoln Steffens — At the beginning of the 20th century, when corruption in city government ran rampant, one of the original muckrakers, Lincoln Steffens, hounded corrupt city officials all across the United States, facing numerous death threats by standing up to local political machines in many cities, including Pittsburgh, New York City and Minneapolis. His Shame of the Cities, which was serialized in McClure's magazine from 1902-1904, was included on New York University's noted list of the 20th century's best American journalism. His engaging autobiography is a lucid and incisive survey of the early 20th century American scene, and was named one of the New York Public Library's Books of the Century.

City room by Arthur Gelb — The veteran journalist discusses his life and 45-year career at the New York Times, beginning in 1944.

Front row at the White House: my life and times by Helen Thomas — Thomas relates her many years of reporting on the White House, exploring the changing relationship between the presidency and the press. Named to UPI's White House Press Corps in 1960, she has reported on eight administrations and has gained the reputation as being scrupulously impartial when reporting the news. She is also is an unrepentant advocate of the media's responsibility to ask uncomfortable questions — even when the public condemns them as intrusive.

A good life: newspapering and other adventures by Ben Bradlee — The editor-in-chief of the Washington Post recounts his life and career in journalism, from his early friendship with Senator John F. Kennedy, to his famous role in the Watergate investigation.

In my place by Charlayne Hunter-Gault — The first black woman to attend the University of Georgia recounts her youthful dreams, her witness to the brutal realities of segregation, and her career as a correspondent for the MacNeil /Lehrer News Hour.

Moyers on America: a journalist and his times by Bill Moyers ; edited by Julie Leininger Pycior — The venerable Bill Moyers started his journalistic life as a 16-year-old at an East Texas newspaper. He went on to become an organizer of the Peace Corps, a publisher of Newsday, and a spokesman for President Lyndon Johnson. Recently retired from his longtime PBS current events series, he's also known for his numerous documentaries over the years. Recognized by many as one of the most respected journalists in America, and often compared to broadcasting legend Edward R. Murrow, he shares, for the first time, his own personal beliefs on the political and moral state of the country.

Newspaper days, 1899-1906 by H.L. Mencken — Also Thirty-Five Years of Newspaper Work by Mencken, a journalist and critic who exercised an enormous influence on life and letters in early 20th century America. Over the course of his long career Mencken lambasted such sacred national institutions as religion, marriage, democracy, popular literature, and mass movements, and was neither willing nor able to ignore the foolish antics of many of his fellow Americans. In Newspaper Days Mencken recalls his early years as a reporter beginning in 1899, until he became the editor of the Baltimore Sun in 1906. The second volume contains memoirs of his many years in journalism.

A reporter's life by Walter Cronkite — One of America's most trusted journalists describes his youth, his early career as a reporter, his work as a war correspondent, and his rise to the pinnacle of television news, sharing his views on the media, news, and the American condition.

Staying tuned: a life in journalism by Daniel Schorr — The legendary journalist recalls his distinguished career, from the golden age of broadcast news to the high-tech world of the 21st century, as he recounts his involvement in a variety of seminal historical events, including the Berlin Wall, the Cold War, the Civil Rights movement, Watergate, and the rise of CNN.

The times of my life: and my life with the Times by Max Frankel — In an entertaining memoir that spans some of the major events of the 20th century, the Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist chronicles his 45-year career at the New York Times, from his youth in Nazi Germany through World War II, to the Cold War, the Space Race and beyond.

20th century journey: a memoir of a life and the times: v. 1 by William L. Shirer — Shirer's three-volume autobiography begins with his formative years in Chicago and Cedar Rapids, and his years as a young reporter in Paris. Along the way the young Shirer was exposed to many notables, and his portraits of acquaintances like Ernest Hemingway, Sinclair Lewis, Isadora Duncan and Eamon De Velera are fascinating. From such humble origins grew the career of one of the greatest print and broadcast journalists of the mid-century. Until December of 1940, Shirer roamed from one European capital to another as a foreign correspondent, first for the Chicago Tribune and subsequently for the Paris edition of the New York Herald, the Universal News Service, and finally for the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS). He spent much of this time in Vienna, Berlin and Prague, reporting on Adolph Hitler and the Nazis during crucial phases of their rise to power. His observations of these tumultuous years formed the basis of two best-selling books, each one a blend of journalism and history: Berlin Diary: The Journal of a Foreign Correspondent, 1934-1941 and The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany which won the National Book Award in 1961.

Websites

Foreign Correspondents

Gellhorn: a twentieth-century life by Caroline Moorehead — A writer and a journalist, Martha Gellhorn covered the major international conflicts of her lifetime, from the Spanish Civil War to Vietnam, landed on Omaha Beach shortly after D-Day, entered Dachau a few days after it was liberated, and observed the Nuremberg trials and, in the course of her long career.

Weller's war: a legendary foreign correspondent's saga of World War II on five continents by George Weller ; edited by Anthony Weller — Walter Cronkite called him “one of our best war correspondents.” His stories from Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific during World War II won him the Pulitzer Prize. Edited by his son, this collection of his dispatches crisscrosses the globe andprovides an eyewitness look at modern history’s greatest upheaval.

War Correspondents

Books

Ambushed: a war reporter's life on the line by Ian Stewart — In a day-to-day account of life as a war correspondent, a journalist shares his harrowing tale of being ambushed by rebels in Sierra Leone while on assignment in Africa, an ambush in which the author was critically wounded and that took the life of one of his colleagues.

Berlin diary: the journal of a foreign correspondent, 1934-1941 by William L. Shirer ; with a new foreword by Gordon A. Craig — A day-by-day, eyewitness account of the momentous events leading up to World War II in Europe by the renowned newspaper reporter and CBS radio broadcaster.

A bohemian brigade: the Civil War correspondents, mostly rough, sometimes ready by James M. Perry — In this history of reporters on the front lines of the American Civil War, the author centers his narrative on a comparative handful of journalists, whose work entailed constant danger on both sides of the line — bullets from the front, and suspicious generals ever ready to charge the reporters with espionage, on the rear.

Dispatches from the front: the American war correspondent by Nathaniel Lande — This collection contains unique and special dispatches from ten American wars. Included are writings from the American Revolution to the Persian Gulf War, and includes the work of Thomas Paine, Stephen Crane, Ernest Hemingway, Ernie Pyle, Edward R. Morrow, Sydney Schanberg, and more than 60 other correspondents.

Ernie Pyle's war: America's eyewitness to World War II by James Tobin — When World War II correspondent Ernie Pyle left for the Pacific Theater in 1945, he told friends and colleagues that he felt sure he would die there. Pyle was right; on April 18th, a Japanese machine gunner killed one of America's most beloved personalities, sending the entire nation into shock and mourning. More than just a biography, this is also a study of war.

Ernie's war: the best of Ernie Pyle's World War II dispatches by edited with a biographical essay by David Nichols ; foreword by Studs Terkel — A collection of the best of preeminent war correspondent Pyle's columns, complete with datelines, photographs and historical notes.

Here is your war: story of G.I. Joe by Ernie Pyle ; introduction to the Bison Books edition by Orr Kelly ; drawings by Carol Johnson — Pyle's writings from the North African campaign of World War II give a close-up look at what life was like for the average soldier.

A mighty heart: the brave life and death of my husband, Danny Pearl by Mariane Pearl with Sarah Crichton — The story of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl, who was kidnapped and murdered in post 9/11 Pakistan.

The most fearful ordeal: original coverage of the Civil War by writers and reporters of The New York Times ; introduction and notes by James M. McPherson — A collection of New York Times articles that documented the Civil War as it was transmitted by the era's recently developed telegraph.

On their own: women journalists and the American experience in Vietnam by Joyce Hoffmann — Focuses on 15 female correspondents, chronicling both their lives and their reporting, beginning with Gloria Emerson's first trip to Vietnam in 1956 and concluding with Laura Palmer's race to the helicopter during the 1975 evacuation of Saigon.

Sister in the band of brothers: embedded with the 101st Airborne in Iraq by Katherine M. Skiba — When U.S.-led forces invaded Iraq in March 2003, our soldiers weren't the only ones who put their lives on the line. So did 600 "embedded" journalists, including Katherine M. Skiba. Having already covered such global hot spots as the Gaza Strip, Kosovo and the Soviet Union, Skiba was one of only 60 female reporters to go to Iraq. As the Washington correspondent for the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, she found herself the lone female civilian amid the 2,300 soldiers of the 159th Aviation Brigade. Her riveting memoir provides a vivid you-are-there account of her experiences with the Army's legendary 101st Airborne, the division celebrated for its heroism in World War II as the "Band of Brothers."

"This is Berlin": radio broadcasts from Nazi Germany by William L. Shirer ; introduction by John Keegan — Through his broadcasts for Edward R. Murrow on CBS Radio, Shirer was a masterful chronicler of the events in Europe that led up to World War II. His first major Berlin broadcast was an eyewitness account of the Anschluss — the fall of Austria to Nazi Germany in 1938. For the next 18 months, his broadcasts covered such major events as the subsequent "Blitzkrieg" offensive; the staggering news of the almost unbelievable Soviet-Nazi non-aggression pact; the declaration of war by Great Britain and France; the Nazi invasions of Norway, Denmark, Holland and Belgium; the Battle of France, the Battle of England, and the threatened German invasion across the Channel. His reporting offered rich insights into the very last days before total gloom descended and World War II began.

War torn: stories of war from the women reporters who covered Vietnam by Tad Bartimus ... [et al.] ; introduction by Gloria Emerson — Acclaimed female journalists — including Tad Bartimus, Denby Fawcett, Jurate Kazickas, Edith Lederer, Kate Webb and Tracy Wood — speak out about their personal and professional experiences as reporters covering the Vietnam War.

The women who wrote the war by Nancy Caldwell Sorel — The women who served as combat correspondents in World War II were a capable, gutsy and inquisitive bunch. Their bravery in snapping photos from bomb-laden B-17s over North Africa or interviewing blood-soaked soldiers fresh from Iwo Jima was matched only by their pluck in overcoming sexist double standards and patronizing attitudes. The collection includes world-famous photojournalist Margaret Bourke-White, the only Western photgrapher to cover the Nazi invasion of the USSR; and writer Martha Gelhorn, one of the first reporters to document the menace of fascism.

World War II on the air: Edward R. Murrow and the broadcasts that riveted a nation by Mark Bernstein & Alex Lubertozzi ; CD narrated by Dan Rather — When war broke out, there was no TV, no satellites, no Internet to spread the news. There was radio. Murrow and his fellow CBS radio correspondents reported directly to listeners as news unfolded. They invented a new kind of reporting while bringing the events of the war into America's living rooms from capitals and battlefields all over the world, and deserve much of the credit for inventing broadcast journalism. The accompanying CD contains more than 50 broadcasts including a rooftop looking out over London as German bombers buzzed the skies; a Normandy beach on D-Day; and a street battle in a crumbling German city before the Battle of the Bulge.

DVDs

Frontline reporting [videodisc] by produced by Actuality Productions, Inc. for the History Channel

Journalists killed in the line of duty [videodisc] by A Cameraplanet Pictures presentation in associate with The Committee to Protect Journalists & Trio Network

Reporting America at war [videodisc] by produced by Amanda Pollak and Stephen Ives ; written by Michelle Ferrari

Websites

Historical Books of Journalism

All the President's men [by] Carl Bernstein [and] Bob Woodward by Bernstein, Carl, 1944- — The inside story of the Washington Post reporters' inquiry into the Watergate scandal.

Dispatches by Michael Herr — Herr, who wrote about the Vietnam War for Esquire magazine, gathered his years of notes from his front-line reporting and turned them into what many people consider the best account of the war to date, when published in 1977. He captured the feel of the war and how it differed from any theater of combat ever fought, as well as the flavor of the time and the essence of the people who were there.

Hiroshima by John Hersey — When the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, few could have anticipated its potential for devastation. Pulitzer prize-winning author John Hersey recorded the stories of Hiroshima residents shortly after the explosion and, in 1946, Hiroshima was published, giving the world first-hand accounts from people who had survived it.

How the other half lives: studies among the tenements of New York by Jacob A. Riis; edited with an introduction by David Leviatin — Arguably one of the most important books published in the United States in the 19th century, this classic work reveals in photographs and narrative the hardships suffered by the slum dwellers of New York's Lower East Side during the late 19th century.

The jungle by Upton Sinclair ; with an afterword by Dr. Barry Sears — Even though this work is written as a novel, The Jungle is considered one of the greatest works of muckraking journalism. The author spent time working in the Chicago slaughterhouses to document the working conditions of the world-famous stockyards. Originally published in 1906 by Upton Sinclair, it sent shockwaves throughout the United States that resulted in cries for labor and agricultural reforms.

The making of the president, 1960 by Theodore H. White — This groundbreaking, Pulitzer Prize-winning narrative history of the exciting 1960 presidential race between Senator John F. Kennedy and Vice-President Richard M. Nixon reinvented the way Presidential campaigns are covered.

Silent spring by Rachel Carson ; introduction by Linda Lear ; afterword by Edward O. Wilson ; [drawings by Lois and Louis Darling] — First published in 1962, Silent Spring alerted a large audience to the environmental and human dangers of indiscriminate use of pesticides, spurring revolutionary changes in the laws affecting our air, land and water.

The souls of Black folk by W.E.B. Du Bois ; introduction by David Levering Lewis — DuBois' largely autobiographical work takes the reader through the maze of Afro-American life after the Emancipation Proclamation: from poverty, the neoslavery of the sharecropper, to illiteracy, miseducation and lynchings.

Ten days that shook the world by Reed, John, 1887-1920 — Reed tells the story of the Russian revolution in 1917 from a unique, firsthand perspective. Reed, an American journalist, was on assignment in Russia for The Masses — then the principal radical journal in the United States. Traveling throughout the city in those fateful days, he recounts the packed meetings, the Provisional government's downfall, the resistance to the Bolsheviks, and their eventful hold on the country, and captures the drama of the power struggle in Petrograd with vivid prose, verbatim speeches and actual documents.

Collections of Journalism

The Best of Rolling Stone: 25 years of journalism on the edge by the editors of Rolling Stone — This 25th anniversary collection features some of the most influential articles from the magazine that redefined journalism, with works by Tom Wolfe, Hunter S. Thompson, Chet Flippo, Ellen Hopkins and many others.

Shaking the foundations: 200 years of investigative journalism in America by Edited by Bruce Shapiro — A collection of 200 years of "muckraking" exposes in the field of investigative journalism, including the New York Times' expose of Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall corruption in the 1870s; the exposure of lynching by Ida B. Wells; the revelation of the Pentagon Papers; and the work of legendary muckrakers from Lincoln Steffens to Woodward and Bernstein.

Photojournalism

Biographies

Blood and champagne: the life and times of Robert Capa by Alex Kershaw — The life and career of the respected war photographer, including his relationships with 20th century authors and Hollywood stars, his often harrowing assignments, his co-founding of the Magnum photo agency, and his death in the Indochina conflict.

Margaret Bourke-White: a biography by Vicki Goldberg — A profile of the pioneering photojournalist whose accomplishments included being the only foreign photographer in Moscow during the Nazi bombardment, being the first woman photographer accredited to the U.S. armed forces, and being the fist to photograph the Allied entry to Buchenwald.

Mr. Lincoln's camera man, Mathew B. Brady by Roy Meredith — The American photographer, publisher and pictorial historian Mathew B. Brady was famous for his portraits of eminent world leaders and his vast photographic documentation of the Civil War. This collection contains over 300 Brady photos reproduced directly from original negatives.

Photographic Collections

Brady's Civil War by Webb Garrison — At the outset of the war in July 1861, Mathew Brady, who was operating a photography studio in New York, set out to photograph the Battle of Bull Run in Manassas, Virginia. Brady went on to become the leading war photographer, amassing, with his assistants, some 6000 photographs. Historian Garrison has selected more than 300 of these images to be reproduced as vivid, large-size images for his book.

Life goes to war: a picture history of World War II — and Life, the First Fifty Years, 1936-1986 and Life, the Second Decade, 1946-1955 — Three collections of photojournalism originally published in Life.

1968 Magnum throughout the world by texts by Eric Hobsbawm and Marc Weitzmann — The photographers of the 50-year-old Magnum Photos agency have compiled a powerful visual rendering of the year 1968. Included are pictures of antiwar rallies, hippies, the aftermath of the Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert Kennedy assassinations, and victims of the My Lai massacre and the Biafran War.

DVDs

War photographer [videodisc] by [presented by] Christian Frei Filmproductions in association with Swiss National Television and Suissimage ; produced by Christian Frei Filmproductions in association with Schweizer Fernsehen DRS and Suissimage — This documentary follows the acclaimed photojournalist James Nachtwey to several locations, including Jakarta and Ramallah, and shows him choking on sulfur fumes and tear gas and risking getting shot in the course of his work. With comments from various individuals such as CNN correspondent Christiane Amanpour, this documentary provides an interesting perspective on Nachtwey and war photography and general. It was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature.

Reference Books

Debating the issues in colonial newspapers: primary documents on events of the period by David A. Copeland

Free expression in America: a documentary history by edited by Sheila Suess Kennedy

Student's guide to landmark congressional laws on the First Amendment by Clyde E. Willis

Movies

Silent spring by Rachel Carson ; introduction by Linda Lear ; afterword by Edward O. Wilson ; [drawings by Lois and Louis Darling] — When a legitimate businessman reads in the paper that he is the subject of a criminal investigation, he sets out with the author of the article to find out the truth. Starring Paul Newman and Sally Field.

All the president's men [videodisc] by Warner Bros. and Wildwood Enterprises, Inc. ; a Robert Redford-Alan J. Pakula film — The story of journalists Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein's investigation of the Watergate scandal. Based on the best-selling book. Stars Robert Redford and Dustin Hoffman.

Call Northside 777 [videodisc] by Twentieth Century-Fox — In this documentary-inspired thriller, a reporter is asked by his editor to look into a potential story: their newspaper has been carrying an ad offering a substantial reward for information regarding the murder of a policeman that occurred 11 years ago. Based on a true story. Starring James Stewart and Lee J. Cobb.

The China syndrome [videodisc] by Columbia Pictures presents a Michael Douglas/IPC Films production ; a James Bridges film — The controller of a nuclear power plant and a news reporter discover a fault in the reactor's system that could lead to disaster. Starring Jane Fonda and Jack Lemmon.

Citizen Kane [videodisc] by RKO Radio Pictures ; a Mercury production ; director/producer, Orson Welles ; screenplay, Herman J. Mankiewicz, Orson Welles — The story of an immensely wealthy newspaper publisher, as he is remembered by his friends and former wife after his death. Loosely based on the life of William Randolph Hearst. Often cited as the greatest film of all time. Starring Orson Welles.

Cry freedom [videodisc] Universal Pictures presents a March Arch production — The story of the horrors of apartheid, based on the true story of the friendship between white newspaper reporter Donald Woods and South African Black activist Stephen Biko. Starring Kevin Kline and Denzel Washington.

Foreign correspondent [videodisc] by Walter Wanger presents ; presented by Caidin Film Co — Alfred Hitchcock's classic tale of a foreign correspondent sent by his newspaper to cover the volatile war scene in Europe and becomes entangled in a spy ring. Starring Joel McRea and George Sanders.

Good night, and good luck [videodisc] by Warner Independent Pictures — A dramatization of the real-life conflict between television newsman Edward R. Murrow and Senator Joseph McCarthy when Murrow and the dedicated CBS newsstaff — including Fred Friendly — were determined to expose the scare tactics perpetrated by McCarthy during his communist witch-hunts. Starring George Clooney and David Strathairn.

His girl Friday [videodisc] by Columbia Pictures Corporation — A newspaper editor and his ex-wife star reporter exchange verbal insults in his effort to keep her on the job by offering her a prison story scoop concerning the impending execution of an anarchist. Cary Grant and Rosalind Russell star in this classic comedy-thriller.

The insider [videodisc] by Touchstone Pictures presents a Mann/Roth production ; a Forward Pass picture — The true story of a research scientist employed by a tobacco firm who decided to tell the world what the seven major tobacco companies knew (and concealed) about the dangers of their product. When a producer from 60 Minutes arranges for the scientist to be interviewed for an expose on the cigarette industry, he finds himself the target of lawsuits and a smear campaign. Starring Russell Crowe and Al Pacino.

The killing fields [videodisc] by Warner Bros. Pictures ; Goldcrest and International Film Investors present an Enigma production — The true story of New York Times correspondent Sidney Schanberg and his Cambodian friend and translator Dith Pran. Covering the U.S. pullout from Vietnam in 1975, Schanberg coerces his friend to remain behind to continue sending him news flashes. Starring Sam Waterston and Haing S. Ngor.

Live from Baghdad [videodisc] by HBO films presents an Industry Entertainment production a film by Mick Jackson — Based on the true story of CNN's decision to provide 24-hour coverage of the first Gulf War, and the producers and correspondents who risked their lives in Iraq to do so. The film vividly demonstrates how a tiny but tenacious basic cable channel managed to out-scoop the Big Three networks, thereby becoming one of the most powerful and influential journalistic forces in the world. Starring Michael Keaton and Helena Bonham Carter.

Missing [videodisc] by Universal Pictures and Polygram Pictures present an Edward Lewis production of a Costa- Gavras Film — A father helps his daughter-in-law look for his son, an American writer who has disappeared during a South American military coup. Inspired by the true story of the late Charles Horman who disappeared in an American-backed Chilean coup. Starring Jack Lemmon and Sissy Spacek.

Network [videodisc] by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer presents — A delirious satire about a TV news department that will do anything for high ratings. The film bitterly critiques corporate culture's impact on the spread of information and the resulting cult of the TV guru. This satire of "trash TV" seems to grow more relevant with each passing year. Starring William Holden, Faye Dunaway and Peter Finch.

The parallax view [videodisc] by Paramount Pictures — Journalist Joe Frady misses witnessing the assassination of a senator at Seattle's Space Needle, but his newswoman former girlfriend Lee Carter doesn't . Although a government commission concludes that it was a freak lone assassin, Lee tells Joe that she fears for her life as other witnesses keep dying. After she, too, turns up dead, Joe decides to investigate. Starring Warren Beatty and Hume Cronyn.

The quiet American [videodisc] by Miramax Films and Intermedia Films present a Mirage Entertainment, Sage Pictures, IMF Production — A British journalist in 1952 is covering the early stages of the war in Indo-China for the London Times — not a demanding assignment since few in England are especially interested in the conflict. Becoming involved in a love triangle with the beautiful Phuong and a seemingly naive American, he ignores his editor's suggestion to return to London, and instead digs deeper in his coverage of the war. Based on the book, The Quiet American, by Graham Greene. Starring Michael Caine and Brendan Fraser.

Salvador [videodisc] by Metro Goldwyn Mayer ; Hemdale Film Corporation presents an Oliver Stone film ; screenplay by Oliver Stone, Richard Boyle ; produced by Gerald Green, Oliver Stone ; directed by Oliver Stone — A war photojournalist documents the tragedies inflicted on El Salvador by the government during the the U.S.-backed civil war. Starring James Woods and Jim Belushi.

Shattered Glass [videodisc] by Lions Gate Films presents a Cruise/Wagner Production, a Baumgarten Merims Production — Stephen Glass, a talented young reporter for a respected news magazine, suffers a fall from grace when it is discovered that he fabricated one-half of his stories. Based on the true story of the New Republic writer. Starring Hayden Christensen and Peter Sarsgaard.

Under fire [videodisc] by a Lion's Gate Film ; Under Fire Associates ; produced by Jonathan Taplin ; directed by Roger Spottiswoode ; screenplay, Ron Shelton, Clayton Frohman — The final days of the Somoza regime in Nicaragua are depicted through the story of three journalists in the grip of a disintegrating society on the verge of chaos. Starring Nick Nolte, Gene Hackman and Joanna Cassidy.

Veronica Guerin [videodisc] by Touchstone Pictures and Jerry Bruckheimer Films presents a Joel Schumacher film — Based on the true story of Irish journalist, Veronica Guerin, whose reporting on powerful drug lords cost her life. Starring Cate Blanchett.

Welcome to Sarajevo [videodisc] by Miramax Films and Channel Four Films ; Beacon Pictures — A startling examination of the Bosnian war of the mid-1990s and the role of journalists in covering it. Based on real-life journalist Michael Nicholson's book, Natasha's Story. Starring Woody Harrelson and Stephen Dillane.

The year of living dangerously [videodisc] by Metro- Goldwyn-Mayer presents a Freddie Fields presentation ; a McElroy & McElroy production ; a Peter Weir film — Set in Indonesia during the 1965 coup against President Sukarno, an ambitious Australian reporter on his first overseas assignment is befriended by a Eurasian cameraman, Billy Kwan, who has connections in high places. Starring Mel Gibson and Sigourney Weaver.

Z [videodisc] by Valoria Films — When the leader of a Greek opposition party is struck down by a truck, a journalist questions whether it was an accident when an investigation finds all of the witnesses mysteriously disappearing. Based on the true story of the 1963 assassination of Greek pacifist leader Gregoris Lambrakis and the government conspiracy behind his death. Starring Yves Montand. In French with English subtitles.